Goreme Panorama, The most magnificent landscape around Göreme has been formed from its solidified lava streams, its ash and tuff stone, all dating from Neocene period. It is criss-crossed by deep valleys formed by heavy erosion. This veritable lunar landscape distinguishes itself by its extensive geological formations. The highly typical morphological structures of Cappadocia are the result of thousands of years of continual erosion, which has shaped the tuff deposits into the strangest pyramids and cones.
Kaymaklı underground city is built under the hill known as the Citadel of Kaymaklı and was opened to visitors in 1964. The people of Kaymaklı (Enegup in Greek) have built their houses around nearly 100 tunnels of the underground city. The inhabitants of the region still use the most convenient places in the tunnels as cellars, storage areas and stables, which they access through their courtyards. Kaymaklı underground city has low, narrow and sloping passages. While the underground city consists of 8 floors below ground, only 4 of them are open to the public today, in which the spaces are organized around ventilation shafts.
Ihlara Valley was one of the first areas settled by early Christians escaping from Roman persecution. With the defensive structures of Mount Hasan providing defence against Arab invaders, the churches cut into the rock here were able to continue in peaceful worship. Ihlara valley has protected these rock-cut dwellings and churches with frescoes and made it possible for us to admire this unique historical treasury. These frescoed churches and dwellings are scattered all along the way from Ihlara to Selime through the valley.
Selime monastery is the biggest religious building in Cappadocia with a cathedral-size church. Inside the cathedral there are two rows of rock columns. These columns divide the cathedral into three sections. The size of the church is astonishing. The columns and arches of the church, cut directly from the tuff within the Selime monastery, still bear the tell-tale markings of various generations that once occupied it. Rudimentary icons from the early days can be seen more clearly, but detailed frescoes, painted later, are barely visible under the years of soot that covers the surfaces from when the Turks used the room for cooking.
Pigeon Valley, thousands of pigeon houses carved into the rock. It is a surreal vision: an outrageously phallic landscape straight out of a Salvador Dali painting. The conical formations are the result of volcanic eruptions that took place millions of years ago. Eons of wind, rain and other forces of nature have eaten away at the volcanic rock creating tufa, a soft and malleable stone. Many of these cones, known as fairy chimneys, contain caves and labyrinths.